According to an international cohort study covering dozens of cities spread across 56 nations, it was revealed that long Covid-19 patients suffer from symptoms that run up to 200, relate to the symptoms to brain, heart, lungs, reproductive organs, skin, and kidneys. Covid-19 is the first disease that has exhibited scores of symptoms that may last even after complete recovery and up to six months to a year including those of post-Covid-19 recovery in have been noted.
Based on the initial data Classification of COVID-19 patients was identified as Symptomatic, mild, moderate, severe and Critical patients for further management and care of patients.
Symptomatic cases test is positive however no clinical symptoms and signs and chest imaging are normal. Mild cases, symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infection (Fever, fatigue, myalgia, cough, sore throat, running nose, sneezing) or digestive symptoms (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea) seen. Moderate cases, Pneumonia (fever, cough), with no obvious hypoxemia, chest CT with lesions noted. Severe cases Pneumonia with hypoxemia (SpO2<92 %). Critical cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may have Shock, Myocardial injury, and Heart failure.
The initial coagulopathy of COVID-19 has been characterized as increased D-dimer and fibrinogen or fibrin degradation products, but also abnormalities of prothrombin time, acute partial thromboplastin time, and Thrombocytopenia. Furthermore, severe COVID-19 infection might also lead to a cytokine storm leading to increased ferritin level, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, and tumour necrosis factor-α.
Disseminated intravascular Coagulopathy is associated with an endotheliopathy that causes thrombotic microangiopathy and microcirculatory impairment. This leads to microvascular platelet-rich thrombotic depositions in small vessels of the lungs and other organs of patients with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor on endothelial cells for intracellular access to cells in the respiratory tract, with viral replication causing inflammation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and microvascular thrombosis. This is a plausible explanation of sudden cerebrovascular complications, myocardial ischaemia, and the increasing reports of both microcirculatory and microcirculatory thromboembolic complications in patients.
Some of the neurological symptoms are loss of smell, decreased taste. Encephalopathy, Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system. Typically, both sides of the body are involved, and the initial symptoms are changes in sensation or pain often in the back along with muscle weakness, beginning in the feet and hands, often spreading to the arms and upper body.
Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), classically presents as a triad of ataxia, areflexia, and Acute onset of external ophthalmoplegia is a cardinal feature. mild limb weakness, ptosis, facial palsy, or bulbar palsy. (pins and needles sensation), numbness, facial palsy, visual loss, disturbances of eye mobility, encephalopathy (damage to the brain), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), stroke, epilepsy, meningitis, myelitis (inflammation of spinal cord), ataxia (neuro problems), sleep disturbances, depression, daytime sleepiness, headache, memory loss, confusion and mental fuzziness.
COVID-19 have displayed kidney damage through acute kidney injury, mild proteinuria, hematuria, or slight elevation in creatinine
Worsening of other chronic disorders like HIV infection, Tuberculosis infection, and other Opportunistic infections like black fungus (mucormycosis) has been noted.
Covid-19 has been found to affect fertility levels, particularly in men. Young men are at a higher risk as they are in child-bearing age and the pandemic virus impacts their ability to reproduce.
This disease could be also fatal as noted in a study of 85 fatal COVID-19 patients with a median age of 65 years in Wuhan showed that the majority of patients died from multi-organ failure as respiratory failure, shock, and ARDS were seen in 94%, 81%, and 74% of cases, respectively requiring close monitoring and full body check and laboratory investigations.